OS Concepts : Process Management

What is a Process?

What is Process Management?

Process Architecture

  • Stack: The Stack stores temporary data like function parameters, returns addresses, and local variables.
  • Heap Allocates memory, which may be processed during its run time.
  • Data: It contains the variable.
  • Text:
    Text Section includes the current activity, which is represented by the value of the Program Counter.

Process Control Blocks

Process States

  • New: The new process is created when a specific program calls from secondary memory/ hard disk to primary memory/ RAM a
  • Ready: In a ready state, the process should be loaded into the primary memory, which is ready for execution.
  • Waiting: The process is waiting for the allocation of CPU time and other resources for execution.
  • Executing: The process is an execution state.
  • Blocked: It is a time interval when a process is waiting for an event like I/O operations to complete.
  • Suspended: Suspended state defines the time when a process is ready for execution but has not been placed in the ready queue by OS.
  • Terminated: Terminated state specifies the time when a process is terminated

Process Control Block (PCB)

  • Process state: A process can be new, ready, running, waiting, etc.
  • Program counter: The program counter lets you know the address of the next instruction, which should be executed for that process.
  • CPU registers: This component includes accumulators, index and general-purpose registers, and information of condition code.
  • CPU scheduling information: This component includes a process priority, pointers for scheduling queues, and various other scheduling parameters.
  • Accounting and business information: It includes the amount of CPU and time utilities like real time used, job or process numbers, etc.
  • Memory-management information: This information includes the value of the base and limit registers, the page, or segment tables. This depends on the memory system, which is used by the operating system.
  • I/O status information: This block includes a list of open files, the list of I/O devices that are allocated to the process, etc.


  • A process is defined as the execution of a program that performs the actions specified in that program.
  • Process management involves various tasks like creation, scheduling, termination of processes, and a dead lock.
  • The important elements of Process architecture are 1)Stack 2) Heap 3) Data, and 4) Text
  • The PCB is a full form of Process Control Block. It is a data structure that is maintained by the Operating System for every process
  • A process state is a condition of the process at a specific instant of time.
  • Every process is represented in the operating system by a process control block, which is also called a task control block.



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Manminder Singh

DevOps Engineer| 3x AWS Certified | Terraform Associate Certified | Linux Certified | Former IT HR | Naval Brat